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Supremacy 1942 Navigation menu VideoGuia do jogo Supremacy 1942 Media from Commons. Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Www.Free Spiele.De, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches. The Soviet advance in the south continued into Romania and, following a coup against Motorsportarten Axis-allied government of Romania on 23 August, the Red Army occupied Bucharest on 31 August.
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A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of Apartheid's legislation divided inhabitants into four racial groups—"black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian", with coloured divided into several sub-classifications.
In Rhodesia a predominantly white government issued its own unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom during an unsuccessful attempt to avoid immediate majority rule.
Nazism promoted the idea of a superior Germanic people or Aryan race in Germany during the early 20th century. Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that white people were members of an Aryan " master race " which was superior to other races, particularly the Jews , who were described as the "Semitic race", Slavs , and Gypsies , which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan or Germanic peoples and Jewish culture.
As the Nazi Party 's chief racial theorist, Alfred Rosenberg oversaw the construction of a human racial "ladder" that justified Hitler's racial and ethnic policies.
Rosenberg promoted the Nordic theory , which regarded Nordics as the "master race", superior to all others, including other Aryans Indo-Europeans.
In establishing a restrictive entry system for Germany in , Hitler wrote of his admiration for America's immigration laws: "The American Union categorically refuses the immigration of physically unhealthy elements, and simply excludes the immigration of certain races.
German praise for America's institutional racism, previously found in Hitler's Mein Kampf , was continuous throughout the early s, and Nazi lawyers were advocates of the use of American models.
The Nazis used the Mendelian inheritance theory to argue that social traits were innate, claiming that there was a racial nature associated with certain general traits such as inventiveness or criminal behavior.
According to the annual report of Germany's interior intelligence service, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution , at the time there were 26, right-wing extremists living in Germany, including neo-Nazis.
Neo-Nazi organisations embracing white supremacist ideology are present in many countries of the world.
In , it was claimed that Russian neo-Nazis accounted for "half of the world's total". Fifty-one people died from two consecutive terrorist attacks at Al Noor Mosque and Linwood Islamic Centre by an Australian white supremacist carried out on 15 March On 27 August , the shooter was sentenced to life without parole.
The term white supremacy is used in some academic studies of racial power to denote a system of structural or societal racism which privileges white people over others, regardless of the presence or the absence of racial hatred.
White racial advantages occur at both a collective and an individual level ceteris paribus , i. Legal scholar Frances Lee Ansley explains this definition as follows:.
By "white supremacy" I do not mean to allude only to the self-conscious racism of white supremacist hate groups.
I refer instead to a political, economic and cultural system in which whites overwhelmingly control power and material resources, conscious and unconscious ideas of white superiority and entitlement are widespread, and relations of white dominance and non-white subordination are daily reenacted across a broad array of institutions and social settings.
This and similar definitions have been adopted or proposed by Charles W. Mills ,  bell hooks ,  David Gillborn ,  Jessie Daniels,  and Neely Fuller Jr,  and they are widely used in critical race theory and intersectional feminism.
Some anti-racist educators, such as Betita Martinez and the Challenging White Supremacy workshop, also use the term in this way.
The term expresses historic continuities between a pre— civil rights movement era of open white supremacy and the current racial power structure of the United States.
It also expresses the visceral impact of structural racism through "provocative and brutal" language that characterizes racism as "nefarious, global, systemic, and constant".
The term's recent rise in popularity among leftist activists has been characterized by some as counterproductive. John McWhorter has described the use of "white supremacy" as straying from its commonly accepted meaning to encompass less extreme issues, thereby cheapening the term and potentially derailing productive discussion.
He claims that the term should be reserved for those who are trying to promote the idea that whites are inherently superior to blacks and not used to characterize less blatantly racist beliefs or actions.
Supporters of Nordicism consider the "Nordic peoples" to be a superior race. The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer attributed cultural primacy to the white race:.
The highest civilization and culture, apart from the ancient Hindus and Egyptians , are found exclusively among the white races; and even with many dark peoples, the ruling caste or race is fairer in colour than the rest and has, therefore, evidently immigrated, for example, the Brahmans , the Incas , and the rulers of the South Sea Islands.
All this is due to the fact that necessity is the mother of invention because those tribes that emigrated early to the north, and there gradually became white, had to develop all their intellectual powers and invent and perfect all the arts in their struggle with need, want and misery, which in their many forms were brought about by the climate.
The eugenicist Madison Grant argued in his book, The Passing of the Great Race , that the Nordic race had been responsible for most of humanity's great achievements, and that admixture was "race suicide".
Many white supremacist groups are based on the concept of preserving genetic purity, and do not focus solely on discrimination based on skin color.
Nazi Germany promulgated white supremacy based on the belief that the Aryan race , or the Germans, were the master race. It was combined with a eugenics programme that aimed for racial hygiene through compulsory sterilization of sick individuals and extermination of Untermenschen "subhumans" : Slavs , Jews and Romani , which eventually culminated in the Holocaust.
Christian Identity is another movement closely tied to white supremacy. Some white supremacists identify themselves as Odinists , although many Odinists reject white supremacy.
Some white supremacist groups, such as the South African Boeremag , conflate elements of Christianity and Odinism. Creativity formerly known as "The World Church of the Creator" is atheistic and it denounces Christianity and other theistic religions.
Matthew F. Hale , founder of the World Church of the Creator, has published articles stating that all races other than white are "mud races", which is what the group's religion teaches.
The white supremacist ideology has become associated with a racist faction of the skinhead subculture , despite the fact that when the skinhead culture first developed in the United Kingdom in the late s, it was heavily influenced by black fashions and music , especially Jamaican reggae and ska , and African American soul music.
White supremacist recruitment activities are primarily conducted at a grassroots level as well as on the Internet. Widespread access to the Internet has led to a dramatic increase in white supremacist websites.
White separatism is a political and social movement that seeks the separation of white people from people of other races and ethnicities , the establishment of a white ethnostate by removing non-whites from existing communities or by forming new communities elsewhere.
Most modern researchers do not view white separatism as distinct from white supremacist beliefs. The Anti-Defamation League defines white separatism as "a form of white supremacy";  the Southern Poverty Law Center defines both white nationalism and white separatism as "ideologies based on white supremacy.
While German historians do not apply any specific periodisation to the conduct of operations on the Eastern Front, all Soviet and Russian historians divide the war against Germany and its allies into three periods, which are further subdivided into eight major campaigns of the Theatre of war: .
Operation Barbarossa began just before dawn on 22 June The Germans cut the wire network in all Soviet western military districts to undermine the Red Army's communications.
What shall we do? And why is your signal not in code? At on 22 June , 99 of German divisions, including fourteen panzer divisions and ten motorised, were deployed against the Soviet Union from the Baltic to the Black Sea.
They were accompanied by ten Romanian divisions, three Italian divisions, two Slovakian divisions and nine Romanian and four Hungarian brigades.
To establish air supremacy, the Luftwaffe began immediate attacks on Soviet airfields, destroying much of the forward-deployed Soviet Air Force airfield fleets consisting of largely obsolescent types before their pilots had a chance to leave the ground.
Army Group North 's objective was Leningrad via the Baltic states. Comprising the 16th and 18th Armies and the 4th Panzer Group , this formation advanced through the Baltic states, and the Russian Pskov and Novgorod regions.
Local insurgents seized the moment and controlled most of Lithuania, northern Latvia and southern Estonia prior to the arrival of the German forces.
Army Group Centre 's two panzer groups the 2nd and 3rd , advanced to the north and south of Brest-Litovsk and converged east of Minsk , followed by the 2nd , 4th , and 9th Armies.
The next objective was to cross the Dnieper river , which was accomplished by 11 July. Their next target was Smolensk , which fell on 16 July, but the fierce Soviet resistance in the Smolensk area and slowing of the Wehrmacht advance by the North and South Army Groups forced Hitler to halt a central thrust at Moscow and to divert the 3rd Panzer Group north.
Critically, Guderian 's 2nd Panzer Group was ordered to move south in a giant pincer manoeuvre with Army Group South which was advancing into Ukraine.
Army Group Centre's infantry divisions were left relatively unsupported by armour to continue their slow advance to Moscow. This decision caused a severe leadership crisis.
The German field commanders argued for an immediate offensive towards Moscow, but Hitler over-ruled them , citing the importance of Ukrainian agricultural, mining and industrial resources, as well as the massing of Soviet reserves in the Gomel area between Army Group Centre's southern flank and the bogged-down Army Group South's northern flank.
This decision, Hitler's "summer pause",  is believed to have had a severe impact on the Battle of Moscow 's outcome, by slowing down the advance on Moscow in favour of encircling large numbers of Soviet troops around Kiev.
Army Group South , with the 1st Panzer Group , the 6th , 11th and 17th Armies , was tasked with advancing through Galicia and into Ukraine.
Their progress, however, was rather slow, and they took heavy casualties in a major tank battle. The 1st Panzer Group turned away from Kiev for the moment, advancing into the Dnieper bend western Dnipropetrovsk Oblast.
When it joined up with the southern elements of Army Group South at Uman , the Group captured about , Soviet prisoners in a huge encirclement.
As the Red Army withdrew behind the Dnieper and Dvina rivers, the Soviet Stavka high command turned its attention to evacuating as much of the western regions' industry as it could.
Factories were dismantled and transported on flatcars away from the front line for re-establishment in more remote areas of the Ural Mountains , Caucasus , Central Asia and south-eastern Siberia.
Most civilians were left to make their own way east, with only industry-related workers evacuated with the equipment; much of the population was left behind to the mercy of the invading forces.
Stalin ordered the retreating Red Army to initiate a scorched-earth policy to deny the Germans and their allies basic supplies as they advanced eastward.
To carry out that order, destruction battalions were formed in front-line areas, having the authority to summarily execute any suspicious person.
The destruction battalions burned down villages, schools, and public buildings. Hitler then decided to resume the advance on Moscow, re-designating the panzer groups as panzer armies for the occasion.
North of the Arctic Circle , a German—Finnish force set out for Murmansk but could get no further than the Zapadnaya Litsa River , where they settled down.
The combined German and Romanian forces moved into the Crimea and took control of all of the peninsula by autumn except Sevastopol , which held out until 3 July On 21 November, the Wehrmacht took Rostov , the gateway to the Caucasus.
However, the German lines were over-extended and the Soviet defenders counterattacked the 1st Panzer Army's spearhead from the north, forcing them to pull out of the city and behind the Mius River ; the first significant German withdrawal of the war.
The onset of the winter freeze saw one last German lunge that opened on 15 November, when the Wehrmacht attempted to encircle Moscow.
Meanwhile, the 2nd Panzer Army failed to take Tula , the last Soviet city that stood in its way to the capital. After a meeting held in Orsha between the head of the OKH Army General Staff , General Franz Halder and the heads of three Army groups and armies, decided to push forward to Moscow since it was better, as argued by the head of Army Group Center , Field Marshal Fedor von Bock , for them to try their luck on the battlefield rather than just sit and wait while their opponent gathered more strength.
However, by 6 December it became clear that the Wehrmacht did not have the strength to capture Moscow, and the attack was suspended.
Marshal Shaposhnikov thus began his counter-attack , employing freshly mobilised reserves ,  as well as some well-trained Far-Eastern divisions transferred from the east following intelligence that Japan would remain neutral.
The Soviet counter-offensive during the Battle of Moscow had removed the immediate German threat to the city.
According to Zhukov , "the success of the December counter-offensive in the central strategic direction was considerable. Having suffered a major defeat the German striking forces of Army Group Centre were retreating.
The main blow was to be delivered by a double envelopment orchestrated by the Northwestern Front , the Kalinin Front and the Western Front.
The overall objective according to Zhukov was the "subsequent encirclement and destruction of the enemy's main forces in the area of Rzhev, Vyazma and Smolensk.
The 20th Army, part of the 1st Shock Army, the 22nd Tank Brigade and five ski battalions launched their attack on 10 January By 17 January, the Soviets had captured Lotoshino and Shakhovskaya.
By 20 January, the 5th and 33rd armies had captured Ruza, Dorokhovo, Mozhaisk and Vereya, while the 43rd and 49th armies were at Domanovo. The Wehrmacht rallied, retaining a salient at Rzhev.
A Soviet parachute drop by two battalions of the st Airborne Brigade and the th Airborne Regiment on 18 and 22 January was designed to "cut off enemy communications with the rear.
Mikhail Grigoryevich Yefremov 's 33rd Army aided by Gen. This force was joined by additional paratroopers of the 8th Airborne Brigade at the end of January.
However, in early February, the Germans managed to cut off this force, separating the Soviets from their main force in the rear of the Germans.
They were supplied by air until April when they were given permission to regain the Soviet main lines. Only part of Belov's Cavalry Corps made it to safety however, while Yefremov's men fought "a losing battle.
By April , the Soviet Supreme Command agreed to assume the defensive so as to "consolidate the captured ground. To the north, the Red Army surrounded a German garrison in Demyansk , which held out with air supply for four months, and established themselves in front of Kholm , Velizh , and Velikie Luki.
Initially this made some progress; however, it was unsupported, and by June a German counterattack cut off and destroyed the army.
The intent was to pin Army Group South against the Sea of Azov , but as the winter eased the Wehrmacht counter-attacked and cut off the over-extended Soviet troops in the Second Battle of Kharkov.
Although plans were made to attack Moscow again, on 28 June , the offensive re-opened in a different direction. Army Group South took the initiative, anchoring the front with the Battle of Voronezh and then following the Don river southeastwards.
The grand plan was to secure the Don and Volga first and then drive into the Caucasus towards the oil fields , but operational considerations and Hitler's vanity made him order both objectives to be attempted simultaneously.
Rostov was recaptured on 24 July when the 1st Panzer Army joined in, and then that group drove south towards Maikop. As part of this, Operation Shamil was executed, a plan whereby a group of Brandenburger commandos dressed up as Soviet NKVD troops to destabilise Maikop's defences and allow the 1st Panzer Army to enter the oil town with little opposition.
Meanwhile, the 6th Army was driving towards Stalingrad , for a long period unsupported by 4th Panzer Army, which had been diverted to help 1st Panzer Army cross the Don.
By the time the 4th Panzer Army had rejoined the Stalingrad offensive Soviet resistance comprising the 62nd Army under Vasily Chuikov had stiffened.
A leap across the Don brought German troops to the Volga on 23 August but for the next three months the Wehrmacht would be fighting the Battle of Stalingrad street-by-street.
At the end of August Romanian mountain troops joined the Caucasian spearhead, while the Romanian 3rd and 4th armies were redeployed from their successful task of clearing the Azov littoral.
They took up position on either side of Stalingrad to free German troops for the main offensive. Mindful of the continuing antagonism between Axis allies Romania and Hungary over Transylvania , the Romanian army in the Don bend was separated from the Hungarian 2nd army by the Italian 8th Army.
Thus, all of Hitler's allies were involved — including a Slovakian contingent with the 1st Panzer Army and a Croatian regiment attached to 6th Army.
The advance into the Caucasus bogged down, with the Germans unable to fight their way past Malgobek and to the main prize of Grozny.
Instead, they switched the direction of their advance to approach it from the south, crossing the Malka at the end of October and entering North Ossetia.
In the first week of November, on the outskirts of Ordzhonikidze , the 13th Panzer Division's spearhead was snipped off and the panzer troops had to fall back.
The offensive into Russia was over. While the German 6th and 4th Panzer Armies had been fighting their way into Stalingrad, Soviet armies had congregated on either side of the city, specifically into the Don bridgeheads , and it was from these that they struck in November In Operation Uranus started on 19 November, two Soviet fronts punched through the Romanian lines and converged at Kalach on 23 November, trapping , Axis troops behind them.
The Germans rushed to transfer troops to the Soviet Union in a desperate attempt to relieve Stalingrad, but the offensive could not get going until 12 December, by which time the 6th Army in Stalingrad was starving and too weak to break out towards it.
To divert the rescue attempt, the Red Army decided to smash the Italians and come down behind the relief attempt if they could; that operation starting on 16 December.
What it did accomplish was to destroy many of the aircraft that had been transporting relief supplies to Stalingrad.
The fairly limited scope of the Soviet offensive, although still eventually targeted on Rostov, also allowed Hitler time to see sense and pull Army Group A out of the Caucasus and back over the Don.
On 31 January , the 90, survivors of the ,man 6th Army surrendered. By that time the Hungarian 2nd Army had also been wiped out. To save the position in the south, the Germans decided to abandon the Rzhev salient in February, freeing enough troops to make a successful riposte in eastern Ukraine.
Manstein 's counteroffensive, strengthened by a specially trained SS Panzer Corps equipped with Tiger tanks , opened on 20 February and fought its way from Poltava back into Kharkov in the third week of March, when the spring thaw intervened.
This left a glaring Soviet bulge salient in the front centered on Kursk. After the failure of the attempt to capture Stalingrad, Hitler had delegated planning authority for the upcoming campaign season to the German Army High Command and reinstated Heinz Guderian to a prominent role, this time as Inspector of Panzer Troops.
Debate among the General Staff was polarised, with even Hitler nervous about any attempt to pinch off the Kursk salient.
He knew that in the intervening six months the Soviet position at Kursk had been reinforced heavily with anti-tank guns, tank traps , landmines , barbed wire , trenches , pillboxes , artillery and mortars.
However, if one last great blitzkrieg offensive could be mounted, then attention could then be turned to the Allied threat to the Western Front.
Certainly, the peace negotiations in April had gone nowhere. Both wings would converge on the area east of Kursk, and by that means restore the lines of Army Group South to the exact points that it held over the winter of — In the north, the entire German 9th Army had been redeployed from the Rzhev salient into the Orel salient and was to advance from Maloarkhangelsk to Kursk.
The 9th Army blunted its spearhead against the Soviet minefields , frustratingly so considering that the high ground there was the only natural barrier between them and flat tank country all the way to Kursk.
The direction of advance was then switched to Ponyri , to the west of Olkhovatka, but the 9th Army could not break through here either and went over to the defensive.
The Red Army then launched a counter-offensive, Operation Kutuzov. On 12 July the Red Army battled through the demarcation line between the th and rd divisions on the Zhizdra River and steamed towards Karachev , right behind them and behind Orel.
The southern offensive, spearheaded by 4th Panzer Army , led by Gen. Hoth , with three Tank Corps made more headway. Battle was joined on 12 July, with about one thousand tanks being engaged.
After the war, the battle near Prochorovka was idealised by Soviet historians as the largest tank battle of all time. The meeting engagement at Prochorovka was a Soviet defensive success, albeit at heavy cost.
Tank losses on both sides have been the source of controversy ever since. Although the 5th Guards Tank Army did not attain its objectives, the German advance had been halted.
At the end of the day both sides had fought each other to a standstill, but regardless of the German failure in the north Erich von Manstein proposed he continue the attack with the 4th Panzer Army.
The Red Army started the strong offensive operation in the northern Orel salient and achieved a breakthrough on the flank of the German 9th Army.
Also worried by the Allies' landing in Sicily on 10 July, Hitler made the decision to halt the offensive even as the German 9th Army was rapidly giving ground in the north.
The Germans' final strategic offensive in the Soviet Union ended with their defence against a major Soviet counteroffensive that lasted into August.
The Kursk offensive was the last on the scale of and that the Wehrmacht was able to launch; subsequent offensives would represent only a shadow of previous German offensive might.
The Soviet multi-stage summer offensive started with the advance into the Orel salient. Although intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tank attacks on one axis, they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviet forces advanced down the Psel , and Kharkov was abandoned for the final time on 22 August.
The German forces on the Mius , now comprising the 1st Panzer Army and a reconstituted 6th Army, were by August too weak to repulse a Soviet attack on their own front, and when the Red Army hit them they retreated all the way through the Donbass industrial region to the Dnieper, losing half the farmland that Germany had invaded the Soviet Union to exploit.
At this time Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line, along which was meant to be the Ostwall , a line of defence similar to the Westwall Siegfried Line of fortifications along the German frontier in the west.
The main problem for the Wehrmacht was that these defences had not yet been built; by the time Army Group South had evacuated eastern Ukraine and begun withdrawing across the Dnieper during September, the Soviet forces were hard behind them.
A second attempt by the Red Army to gain land using parachutists, mounted at Kaniv on 24 September, proved as disappointing as at Dorogobuzh eighteen months previously.
The paratroopers were soon repelled — but not until still more Red Army troops had used the cover they provided to get themselves over the Dnieper and securely dug in.
As September ended and October started, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew. Important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk.
Finally, early in November the Red Army broke out of its bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital, at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union.
This battle also enabled Army Group South to recapture Korosten and gain some time to rest. However, on Christmas Eve the retreat began anew when the First Ukrainian Front renamed from the Voronezh Front struck them in the same place.
The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the Polish—Soviet border was reached on 3 January In the second week of January they swung north, meeting Vatutin's tank forces which had swung south from their penetration into Poland and surrounding ten German divisions at Korsun—Shevchenkovsky, west of Cherkassy.
Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out.
By 16 February the first stage was complete, with panzers separated from the contracting Cherkassy pocket only by the swollen Gniloy Tikich river.
Under shellfire and pursued by Soviet tanks, the surrounded German troops, among whom were the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking , fought their way across the river to safety, although at the cost of half their number and all their equipment.
They assumed the Red Army would not attack again, with the spring approaching, but on 3 March the Soviet Ukrainian Front went over to the offensive.
Having already isolated the Crimea by severing the Perekop isthmus , Malinovsky's forces advanced across the mud to the Romanian border, not stopping on the river Prut.
After two weeks' of heavy fighting, the 1st Panzer managed to escape the pocket, at the cost of losing almost the entire heavy equipment.
At this point, Hitler sacked several prominent generals, Manstein included. In April, the Red Army took back Odessa , followed by 4th Ukrainian Front's campaign to restore control over the Crimea, which culminated in the capture of Sevastopol on 10 May.
According to the same source, total Soviet civilian deaths within post-war borders amounted to The numbers for other Central European and German civilian casualties are not included here.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Leiden, Boston: Brill. We begin where we ended six centuries ago. We stop the perpetual Germanic march towards the south and west of Europe, and have the view on the country in the east.
We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future.
But if we speak today in Europe of new land, we can primarily only to Russia and the border states subjects him think.
Central European History. Source: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol. Stuart Stein, University of the West of England. Archived from the original on 2 March Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death … interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our Kultur Pantheon Books.
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Yale University Press. Retrieved 7 March The enemy must really find completely burned and destroyed land". Holocaust Controversies.
On repatriation of Soviet citizens. Istoriya SSSR. American Journal of International Law. A High Octane Weapon of Victory. Oil of Russia. Russian Academy of Natural Sciences.
Citing K. Washington, The Telegraph. London: Greenhill Books. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 2 May Build your own army of strong soldiers with efficient weapons, powerful tanks, submarines and fast airplanes.
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